Girls rock! Here's what the guys are doing...!
Tuesday, August 25, 2015
Wednesday, August 19, 2015
Copyright © Françoise Herrmann
In US2465817 titled High heel shoe, Perugia disclosed a comfortable, and aesthetically pleasing, 4-inch high heel shoe without the use of a platform to compensate for the increased height.
The invention invoked a concave inner sole, designed to prevent the foot from slipping forward under pressure of the heel height. The concave inner sole thus replaced the need for what was perceived as unsightly platforms while still affording extra height, compared to the state of the art in the height of women’s shoes.
In US246817, the high heel and its concave inner sole were embodied in a pump, and described as applicable to other upper shoe designs such as Perugia's marketed, "mask mule" included as an illustration in this post.
A patent drawing, showing the pump embodiment of the invention, extracted from US2465817, titled High-heel shoe, is also included.
Tuesday, August 18, 2015
Copyright © Françoise Herrmann
In, 1927, Perugia invented a musical heel enabling the person wearing them to make sounds with every step. However, this invention was designed with performance artists in mind, and especially circus performers, who might each have different musical shoes, and thus produce music together in various combinations.
The invention, disclosed in FR625731, consisted in a hollow and compressible rubber heel functioning as a compressible air chamber. That is, with every step the air contained inside the chamber of the rubber heel is described as compressed and forced through a sound-making instrument (10). The sound-making instrument is described as consisting in a small opening and tube equipped with a membrane that vibrates to produce a sound when air is forced through. Thus, the sound-making instrument within the heel is disclosed as both air and vibration driven, whereas the compression mechanism is variously described as consisting in a spring, that is gusseted or not.
Two 1927 patent drawings, extracted from Perugia's musical heel patent, are included. Figure 2 shows the empty heel, and Figure 3 shows one embodiment of the invention with a gusseted spring and the small opening and tube equipped with a vibrating membrane.
Sunday, August 16, 2015
One of Perguia’s famous heel inventions was disclosed in US2795866, titled Ladies’ shoes, granted in 1956, and assigned to Isaac Miller. This heel patent concerned a replaceable heel. The invention addressed the fashion-conscious need to change heels to match an outfit, or the need for comfort to better suit a particular purpose, such as "hike or walk”.
The embodiment of the invention included a curved metal “tenon” and “mortise” slide, attached lengthwise on the outside of the shoe, under the arched and heel portions. The tenon served in this manner as a shank, and it was re-inforced by the metal mortise slide, attached to the shoe. A locking mechanism was also provided for the tenon and mortise system, in view of preventing the heel from slipping. Most importantly, the heel assembly system was designed so as to require no tools and no exertion when changing heels.
Patent figure drawings are included to the right, and below, a modern marketed version of the replaceable heel shoe.
Saturday, August 15, 2015
|FR595482 - Fig. 1|
Many of Perugia’s patents are heel-related. This is probably because in 1925 Perugia actually changed the way women's heels were previously constructed.
|FR595482 - Fig. 4|
In the 1925 French patent, FR595482, Perugia disclosed the sheet metal housing of a shoe heel (Fig. 1), designed to receive two parts of a heel made of wood and assembled in a "T" shape (Fig. 4). This invention replaced the former method of heel construction consisting in nailing or gluing leather around a single block of wood, carved into the shape of a heel. The problematic situation consisted in the expense and time it took to carve the single piece of wood-block heel, and then to wrap it in leather, and to attach part of the shoe sole at the connection point with the rest of the shoe.
Perugia changed the former art, by designing a metal housing for two blocks of wood assembled as an angled “T” shaped heel (Fig 4). The metal housing could additionally be fashionably enameled to bypass covering it with leather. The empty spaces inside the housing could be filled with cork or other materials, and the metal housing was held together with metal threads or fasteners.
The invention thus afforded both a much lighter heel than single-block wooden heels. And, compared to a housing heel with no wood blocks inside, it also offered a more resistant heel as it still enclosed the wooden T-shaped blocks. The scope of the invention also extended to all sorts of heels, beyond women’s high heels.
|FR608988 - Fig 4|
A year later, Perugia filed an improvement to his novel heel construction invention. This improvement, disclosed in FR608988, consisted in changing the ergonomic shape of the two pieces of wood, assembled as a “T” within the metal housing (Figure 4]. Essentially, the horizontal block of wood was fabricated in an augmented size, to provide more anchoring when attached to the heel part of the shoe, and the vertical block was more beveled to better accommodate the increased surface of the horizontal block and it's shape.
Both of these two early patents awarded in France to Perugia, in 1925 and 1926, were almost concurrently re-filed in the USA (as US1809918 and US1642889), in Switzerland (as CH124341 and CH118696), in Canada (as CA274538 and CA264938) and in Austria (AT108548 and AT106112), which suggests how important they were to the manufacture of shoe heels.
From then on, Perugia filed many more heel patents: design patents draping the metal housing “turban-style” (USD111857, USD112086 USD111858), and many additional utility patents such as the whimsical “music box heel” patent (FR625731) or a new heel height patent (US2465817), and a famous heel customization (US2795866) patent.
Monday, August 10, 2015
Copyright © Françoise Herrmann
For the sake of completeness, and before examining in more detail Perugia's inventions, you will find below a short hyperlinked list of Perugia’s patents filed in Switzerland (CH), Germany (DE), Canada (CA) and Austria (AT).
This list of patents is hyperlinked to the EPO Espacenet database, containing 90 million documents worldwide, from 1836 to date.
Here too, please just click on the patent number for the original document.
Germany utility patent
DE6911426 – Non-gaping shoe upper – Sept. 29 1969 – Perugia
Switzerland utility patents
CH141857 – Procédé de fabrication de parois au moyen de lanières de cuir – Aug. 31, 1930 – Perugia.
CH124341 – Talon de chaussures –– Jan. 16, 1928 - Perugia.
CH118696 - Talon pour chausssures – Feb. 1, 1927 – Perugia.
Canada utility patents
CA510314 – Initially divided insoles – Feb. 22, 1955 – Perugia.
CA274538 – Shoe Heel – Oct. 11, 1927 – Perugia.
CA264938 – Heel – Oct 1, 1926 – Perugia.
Austria utility patents
AT121644 (B) – Verfahren zur Herstellung von Schuwerk – March 10, 1931
AT118348 (B) - Verfahren zur Herstellung con Flächengebilden iter Benützung con Lederriemen – July 10, 1930 – Perugia.
AT108548 (B) – Schuhabsatz – Jan 10, 1928 – Perugia.
AT106112 (B) – Schuhabsatz – April 11, 1927 – Perugia.
Saturday, August 8, 2015
Copyright © Françoise Herrmann
Below, you will find a hyperlinked list of the patents that Perugia filed with patenting authorities at the French Ministries of Commerce and Industry, or Commerce and Energy, depending on the Administration in place, and now all stored at the INPI – Institut de la Propriété Industrielle in France -- just in case you had doubts about this shoe genius and how prolific an inventor in the domain of shoewear and shoe manufacture!
Just as a reminder, each of these 50 French inventions was filed and examined, and then judged patentable according to the three criteria of patentability: novelty, inventive step (no pun here) and usefulness (meaning with industrial application in Europe). Thus, each invention was not only a new improvement, product or process, it was also one that was non-obvious to those skilled in the art. Indeed, what is perhaps most extraordinary is that all of these previously non-obvious inventions were designed and commissioned for the comfort, beauty and glamour of women's feet, exclusively!
|Perugia's Fish Shoe |
in honor of Georges Bracques
exhibited in NYC in 1955
As for Patents on the soles of your shoes… What a catch!
[Please, click on the patent number for access to original French patent document at the INPI, then be patient for the document to load.]
France Utility patents
FR1169315 - Perfectionnements apportés aux chaussures féminines dites pieds nus - Dec. 12, 1958 – Perugia.
FR1163665 – Nouvelle matière première notamment pour la confection de bouts durs, contreforts et renforts de chaussures – Sept. 30, 1958 – Perugia.
FR1142810 – Perfectionnement apporté aux chaussures, notamment celles comportant un quartier court ou un quartier ouvert – Sept. 23, 1957 – Perugia.
FR1142809 – Chaussure à talon interchangeable - Sept. 23, 1957 – Perugia.
FR1118264 – Perfectionnement apporté aux chaussures, notamment aux chaussures sans quartier – June 4, 1956 – Perugia.
FR1112645 - Procédé de montage de chaussures, et chaussures obtenues par ce procédé – March 16, 1956 - Perugia.
FR1064458 – Chaussure de dame à quartier amovible – May 13, 1954 – Perugia.
FR1036098 – Nouveau procédé de montage de la tige dans les chaussures comportant une « première » de montage – Sept 3, 1953 – Perugia.
FR1030496 – Talon « habillé » et procédé de fabrication de son habillage – June 15, 1953 – Perugia.
FR1024750 – Nouveau mode de montage de chaussures – April 7, 1953 – Perugia.
FR981071 – Nouvelle chaussure feminine découverte – May 22, 1951 – Perugia.
FR974391 - Chaussure à quartier fermé – Feb. 21, 1951 – Perugia.
FR892618 – Montage de chaussure à semelle de bois avec première en matière rigide ou semi rigide perfectionnée – May 15 1944 – Perugia.
FR892437 – Procédé d’armage des semelles bois, liège et analogues – April 6 1944 – Perugia.
FR884864 – Perfectionnement apporté aux chaussures à semelles de bois articulées – Aug. 30, 1943 – Perugia.
FR882037 – Chaussure à semelle en matière rigide perfectionnée – May 14, 1943 – Perugia.
FR882036 – Nouveau quartier pour chaussures – May 14, 1943 – Pergugia.
FR873454 – Semelle de chaussure en fibres végétales – July 9, 1942 – Perugia.
FR872823 – Nouveau montage de chaussures – June 19, 1942 – Perugia.
FR871763 – Procédé de fabrication de chaussures à semelle de bois et produit industriel en résultant – May 9, 1942 – Perugia.
FR857534 – Procédé de farication de chaussures et produits en résutlant – Sept. 17, 1940 – Perugia.
FR832534 – Peausserie composée, extensible élastiquement suivant une seule direction et applicable à la fabrication de chaussures – Sept, 28, 1938 – Perugia.
FR813134 – Montage de chaussure et produit industriel en résultant – May 26, 1937 – Perugia
FR769952 - Procédé de fabrication de chaussure – Sept. 5, 1934 – Perugia.
FR769914 – Gaine formant quartier d’empeigne et enveloppe de talon pour chaussure – Sept 4, 1934 – Perugia.
FR739916 – Dispositif de serrage pour souliers – Jan 19, 1933 – Perugia.
FR719851 – Procédé de protection temporaire des peaux, cuirs, étoffes, etc.. pendant la confection d’articles fabriqués avec ces matières - Feb. 12, 1932 – Perugia.
FR719850 – Perfectionnements aux sabots à semelle rigide articulée – Feb. 10, 1932 – Perugia.
FR703295 – Procédé de fabracation de parois imitant un tressé de plusieurs lanières – April 28, 1931 – Perugia.
FR695509 – Perfectionnements aux sandales à semelles rigides – Dec. 17, 1930 – Perugia.
FR680710 – Perfectionnements à la fabrication des chaussures – May 5, 1930 – Perugia.
FR653470 – Perfectionnement apporté dans l’établissement de semelles de socques ou autres – March 21, 1929 – Perugia.
FR652607 – Procédé de fabrication de parois au moyen de lanières de cuir et produits industriels en résultant – March 11, 1929 – Perugia.
FR630415 – Monture de sac – Dec. 2, 1929 – Perugia.
FR630414 - Monture de sac – Dec. 2, 1929 – Perugia.
FR630413 - Monture de sac – Dec. 2, 1929 – Perugia.
FR625731 – Chaussure à talon ou semelle à musique – Aug. 8, 1927 – Perugia.
FR608988 – Perfectionnements apportés aux talons de chaussures – Aug. 6, 1926 – Perugia.
FR595482 – Talon pour chaussure et son mode de fabrication – Oct. 3, 1925 – Perugia.
FR530356 – Peinture à l’émail sur cuir noir verni pour chaussures – Dec. 21, 1921 - Perugia.
FR1218920 – Perfectionnements apportés aux chaussures – May 13, 1960 – Perugia.
FR1236520 - Perfectionnements apportés aux chaussures – July 22, 1960 – Perugia.
FR69780 (E) - Perfectionnements apportés aux chaussures, notamment aux chaussures sans quartier – Dec.30, 1958 – Perugia.
FR63894 (E) – Nouveau procédé de montage de la tige, dans les chaussures comportant une « première » de montage – Oct. 13 1955 – Perugia.
FR36507 (E) – Perfectionnement apporté dans l’établissemenet de semelles de socques ou autres – June 28, 1930 – Perugia.
FR35272 (E) - Procédé de fabrication de parois au moyen de lanières de cuir et produits industriels en résultant – Dec. 31, 1929 – Perugia.
FR1522438 – Perfectionnement aux souliers – April 26, 1968 – Perugia.
FR1522437 – Perfectionnement aux formes de souliers – April 26, 1968 – Perugia.
Friday, August 7, 2015
Copyright © Françoise Herrmann
Not only did Perugia file design patents for all the new shoe models that he invented, he also filed many more utility patents, in regards shoe manufacture, materials and ergonomy.
Perugia’s utility patents span a wide range of inventions:
- improvements to soles, manufacturing processes, comfort and wear- new materials for shoe manufacturing including organic fibers, cork and wood- new manufacturing processes for use of the new materials, for various new parts of a shoe such as strapping, or elastic portions- new sorts of shoes, sandals, in particular, and- new sorts of heels, from the whimsical musical heels to removable and changeable heels.
Perugia’s US (only) utility patents are listed below. As you will see, in some cases I. Miller and Sons was the Assignee. The patents listed are hyperlinked to the keyed figure drawings filed as part of the disclosure of the inventions, at the USPTO.
The patents that Perugia filed in France, Germany, Switzerland Canada and Austria will be listed in subsequent posts, and some of the inventions presented in greater detail.
US Utility Patents
US1609918 – Heel for shoes – Dec. 7, 1926 – André Perugia.
US1642889 – Shoe heel – Sept. 20 1927 – André Perugia.
US1798271 - Shoe closure – March 31, 1931, André Perugia, Assignee I Miller and Sons.
US1814260 – The manufacture of shoe uppers – July 14, 1931 - André Perugia.
US2136084 - Shoe – November 8, 1938 - André Perugia.
US2208104 – Shoe – July 16, 1940 – Andre Perugia, Assignee Saks and Company.US2199713 - Footwear – May 7, 1941 – André Perugia.
US2465817 - High Heel shoe - March 29, 1949 - André Perugia, Assignee I Miller and Sons.
US2592182 – Shoe with elastic back and added fastening means – April 8 1952 - Perugia.
US2632259 - Improvements to initially divided insoles - March 24, 1953 - Perugia.
US2726462 - Improvements to initially divided insoles – Dec. 13, 1955 – Perugia.
Thursday, August 6, 2015
Copyright © Françoise Herrmann
Perugia was born in France, of Italian shoemaker parents. He set up shop in Paris in 1909, where he sold handmade shoes. Perugia was a brilliant shoe designer and prolific inventor, with more than 100 registered patents, including dozens of US design patents and utility patents. Perugia also filed patents in France, Germany, Canada, Great Britain, Switzerland and Austria!
Below, you will find a list of André Perugia's timeless US (only) Design patents, some of which were granted in batches with consecutive numbers. For example, six consecutive US Design patents were granted on March 16, 1937, and five were granted on May 8, 1934.
For the definition of a design patent and differences compared to utility patents, please refer to the Patents on the soles of your shoes post on Design and utility patents: What’s the difference? In a nutshell:
“a “utility patent” protects the way an article is used and works (35 U.S.C. 101), while a "design patent" protects the way an article looks (35 U.S.C. 171).” [USPTO]
Hyperlinked list of André Perugia's US design patents
USD80632 – Design for a shoe - March 4, 1930 – André Perugia
USD91725 - Design for a shoe – March 13, 1934 – André Perugia
USD91728 - Design for a shoe – March 13, 1934 – André Perugia
USD92200 – Design for a shoe – May 8, 1934 – André Perugia
USD92201 - Design for a shoe - May 8, 1934 - André Perugia
USD92202 – Design for a shoe – May 8, 1934 – André Perugia
USD92203 – Design for a shoe – May 8, 1934 – André Perugia
USD92204 – Design for a shoe – May 8, 1934 – André Perugia
USD92369 – Design for shoe – May 29, 1934 – André Perugia
USD92924 – Design for shoe – July 31, 1934 – André Perugia
USD93788 – Design for a shoe - November 6, 1934 – André Perugia
USD93789 – Design for a shoe - November 6, 1934 – André Perugia
USD93846 – Design for a shoe - Nov. 13, 1934 – André Perugia
USD93887 – Design for a shoe - Nov. 20, 1934 – André Perugia
USD93888 -– Design for a shoe - Nov. 20, 1934 – André Perugia
USD94513 – Design for a shoe – Feb. 5, 1935 – André Perugia
USD95775 - Design for a shoe - May 28, 1935 – André Perugia
USD95776 - Design for a shoe - May 28, 1935 – André Perugia
USD96127 – Design for a shoe – July 2, 1935 - André Perugia
USD96128 – Design for a shoe – July 2, 1935 – André Perugia
USD96412 – Design for a shoe - July 30, 1935 – André Perugia
USD102193 – Design for a shoe or similar article – Dec. 1, 1936 – Perugia
USD103586 – Design for a shoe or similar article – March 16, 1937 – Perugia
USD103588 – Design for a shoe or similar article – March 16, 1937 – Perugia
USD103590 - Design for a shoe – March 16, 1937 – André Perugia
USD103592 – Design for a shoe – March 16, 1937 – André Perugia
USD103593 - Design for a shoe or similar – March 16, 1937 – Perugia
USD103594 - Design for a shoe or similar – March 16, 1937 – Perugia
USD104469 - Design for a shoe or similar – May 11, 1937 – Perugia
USD104470 - Design for a shoe or similar – May 11, 1937 – Perugia
USD104471 - Design for a shoe or similar – May 11, 1937 – Perugia
USD104725 – Design for a shoe or similar article – June 1, 1937 – Perugia
USD104877 - Design for a shoe or similar article – June 8, 1937 – Perugia
USD111858 - Design for a shoe or similar article- Oct. 25, 1938 – Perugia
USD112085 – Design for a shoe or similar article- Sept. 8, 1938 – Perugia
USD112086 – Design for a shoe or similar article- Sept. 8, 1938 – Perugia
USD111857 – Design for a shoe or similar article - Oct. 25, 1938 – Perugia
USD113877 – Design for a shoe or similar article – May 21, 1939 - Perugia
USD124331 – Design for a shoe - December 31, 1940 - André Perugia
USD166867 – Lady’s shoe or similar article – May 27, 1952 – André Perugia
|Prow-toe sandal 1960, Turban Sandal 1928, Mask Sandal 1929 (O,Keefe, 1996)|
USPTO: Guide to filing a design patent applicationhttp://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/com/iip/pdf/brochure_05.pdf
O,Keefe, L (1996) Shoes: A celebration of pumps, platforms, sandals and slippers, boots, mules, sneakers and more. NY, NY: Worrman Publishing