Thursday, December 31, 2015

Sign off 2015 - Paris Agreement on Climate change

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann


UNFCCC COP21 – 2015 INPI environmental trophy nominations

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann

The following eight contenders for the French patent office INPI Innovation Trophies were nominated for a 2015 environmental innovation award in one of the four trophy categories:  patents,  trademarks, design and research. The Trophies were awarded to the winners on December 7, 2015, during the 21st session of the Conference of Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change - UNFCCC COP21, held  in Paris from Nov. 30th to December 11, 2015.

Fermentalg (nominated in the patent category) – a cutting-edge clean-tech company that seeks to use the exceptional properties of microalgae in view of producing compounds such as Omega 3 fatty acids, coloring agents, antioxidants and biopolymers for use in various everyday life products. Patented technology also enables to produce hydrocarbons using microalgae for everyday life products, thus bypassing traditional fish-based and petroleum-based methods. Applications are already in production for human nutrition, animal feed, 
green chemistry, cosmetics and green energy.

NA! - Nature Addicts (nominated in the trademark category) – A company that produces 100 % natural food snacks, with no preservatives and only the sugar derived from fruit. The snacks are bite-sized and come in a re-sealable zip lock pouch.  As low-fat, low sugar treats in an attractive white packaging, Na! is very successful in France, five years after its inception. For a country that prides itself on no-snacking… the tide appears to be 
changing… as long as it’s healthy…

LSCE – Laboratoire des sciences du climat et de l’environnement (nominated in the research category) – Nine researchers and professors affiliated with the LSCE participated in the IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, co-recipient with Al Gore of the 2007 Nobel Peace for having alerted the world to problems of climate change. This laboratory works in collaboration with major research institutions such as the French national center for scientific research (CNRS – Centre National de Recherches Scientifiques), the French alternative energies and atomic commission (CEA- Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique) and French academic institutions. The lab’s research agenda covers climate and environmental change, both natural and human-induced, as well as the connections with carbon and carbon dioxide cycles.

LACTIPS (nominated in the patent category) – a start-up company based in Lyon with patented technology for the production of plastic granules using casein, a protein found in cow’s milk.  LACTIPS’ patented technology thus produces biodegradable, water-soluble, compostable  and sweet plastic, ultimately designed as edible packaging, such as for example tea bags.  However, one is left a bit chilled, without information on whether the process through which the casein is harvested, is cruelty-free...

Greenpriz (nominated in the design category) – a company that markets an energy management and optimization solution in both real and delayed time. The company produces connected devices designed to monitor and analyze the use of electricity in large service-oriented buildings, such as schools and other public institutions or businesses. The devices are easily installed, without wiring, and connected to free and proprietary software that analyzes current uses and offers solutions to reduce costs. Results are quantified into approximately 43% savings on average.

ESITC Caen – Ecole supérieure des ingénieurs des travaux de construction (nominated in the research category) – The materials development laboratory at l’ESITC, France’s Elite School for construction engineers, patented a concrete pavement tile using seashells. The advantages of these pavement tiles are twofold. First, they are designed to resolve the issue of recycling 250 million tons of sea shells discarded by the food industry once the pulp is removed. And secondly, the seashell pavement tiles are designed to absorb water, thus reducing the risks of flooding on low traffic surfaces such as parking lots and sidewalks.

Castalie  (nominated in the design category) – a company that markets high flow rate, tap water filtration and carbonation machines for hotels, restaurants, cafés and other business venues. The idea is to replace bottled water (both carbonated and still), which is both costly for consumers and costly for the environment. Bottled water travels on average 900 kms in France and there are 6 billion liters of bottled water consumed per year, 80% of which comes in plastic bottles, only half of which ever gets recycled. The Castelie high flow rate tap water machines are designed to filter, adjust the temperature and the size of the carbonation bubbles!

Canibal (nominated in the trademark category) –The term “canibal” corresponds to the contraction of two French words “canette” (meaning soda can) and “mise en balle” (the bailing compacting process used in recycling).  Accordingly, Canibal is a start-up company that offers a connected trash collecting and recycling solution at the intersection of bin, trash compactor and gaming machine. The Canibal machine sorts, identifies, compacts and quantifies three sorts of recyclable trash (soda cans, plastic bottles and both plastic and paper cups). And, because the machines work interactively like a game, they are also designed to educate users. Each ton of recycled trash means 3 tons less of carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere.

COP21 - Paris, France
Al Gore and IPCC – 2007 Noble Peace Prize
CEA – Commissariat à l’énergie atomique
CNRS – Centre National de Recherche Scientifiques
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Cimate Change) Statement on the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize
Nature Addicts
LSCE – Laboratoire des sciences du climat et de l’environnement
ESITC – Ecole supérieure d’ingégnieurs des Travaux de la Construction Caen
Winners of the 2015 INPI Innovation Trophies awarded on Dec. 7, 2015

Wednesday, December 30, 2015

UNFCCC COP21 – INPI 2015 environmental trophy winners

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann

During the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), held in Paris from November 30th to Dec.11th 2015, the French Patent Office (INPI - Institut National de la Propriété Industrielle) awarded its 2015 Innovation Trophies in a partnership with the civil society hosting the COP21 conference. 

Accordingly, this year’s INPI Innovation Trophies, in the four categories of patents, design, trademark and research, were awarded on December 7, 2015 to small French businesses and research centers, each active in bringing innovative answers and breakthrough solutions to environmental issues. 

The 2015 INPI Innovation Trophies were awarded to the following 4 contenders:

Blablacar (Trademark Trophy) – an online leader in ridesharing (for a fee) with 20 million subscribers in 19 countries. The company initially called Comuto, founded in 2006, chose the tradename Blablacar based on the user profile question “Are you bla, blabla or blablaba?” designed to prompt subscribers at evaluating how talkative they are when commuting! The rest is French history…!

Le Prieuré (Design Trophy) – a company that designs green or living roofs, both for aesthetic and environmental purposes. The company, founded in 1992, now produces about 1 million square meters of living roofs per year, manufacturing and installing patented all-in-one HYDROPACK, and more recent connected HYDROVENTIV, packs. 

DEEP - Déchets, Eaux, Environnement, Pollutions (Research Trophy) - a research laboratory affiliated with the National Institute of Applied Sciences in Lyon, France (INSA – Institut National des Sciences Appliquées). DEEP’s research agenda has focused on the design of patented solutions addressing various environmental issues such as the detection of silicon in biofuel, quantification and qualification rain water diverted to watersheds, and production of biofuel using biomass. 

PAT - Plant Advanced Technologies (Patent Trophy) - a start-up company connected to the French National Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine and the French National Institute of Agricultural Research (INRA – Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique). PAT has responded to the issue of sourcing chemical compounds from plants which usually destroys plants and biodiversity, resulting in extremely expensive extracts at equally high costs for the environment. The company thus developed two patented technologies: “PAT Plant milking®” and “PAT Friday®”, respectively enabling to extract and produce plant-based active ingredients for therapeutic or cosmetic purposes without destroying plants and biodiversity. 

Le Prieuré
Laboratoire DEEP
PAT – Plant Advanced Technologies

Trophées INPI 2015
INSA – Institut national des sciences appliquées
INRA – Institut national de la recherche agronomique

Saturday, November 28, 2015

Oh, patents! Stride Rite® lighted shoes

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann

What’s cooler than a pair of lighted shoes? A pair of shoes that blink without batteries!

In a nutshell, this is what the Stride Rite® patent US2007020122 is all about: addressing the issue of battery depletion so that a small child's lighted shoes will blink without exhaustion. 

Prior art lighted shoes have attempted to address the issue of battery depletion by resorting to various strategies. Among these strategies, increases in battery life, pressure sensitive switches that turn the lights on only under the pressure of a jump, a skip or walking, the use of less blinking lights, or of light-blinking sequences so that not all the lights go on at the same time. But none of these lighted shoes were batteryless. Indeed, none had ever operated without switches or a controller!

Accordingly, US2007020122 offers to resolve the issue of battery life in children’s lighted shoes with a light and power-generating device “configured as a magnetic field induction element that operates in accordance with Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction:. .”

The shoe upper contains LED lights in a desirable configuration. The lights are connected with wires to a printed circuit board that is part of a lighting module, located in a cavity, inside the shoe heel or elsewhere inside the sole. 

The power-generating device, consisting of a permanent magnetic rod measuring less than ½ an inch in length, and less than 1/8 of an inch in diameter, inside a tube, configured as a magnetic field -operating according to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, then has the capacity to induce voltage on a coil, coiled around the tube, and thus to generate sufficient voltage to make a small LED light blink, every time the magnetic field is disturbed. 

Accordingly every time there is erratic movement (skipping, jumping, walking), the magnetic rod will move, creating a disturbance in a magnetic field that induces voltage on a coil, which in turn will make the lights blink!

Thus, not only does the shoe no longer need a battery to operate the LED lights of the little shoe, it also no longer needs a pressure-activated switch, since the movement of the magnetic field is enough to induce voltage. In turn, the reduction in the number of components of the invention also makes the little shoe more cost efficient. 

The patent further recites the specific design details of this dynamic magnetic motor or “dynamo” that generates energy inside the shoe, using the relative motion of a magnetic field and stationary coiled inductor or stator, the various circuit configurations to actuate the lights, and those that will bypass the use of a controller, thus further reducing the number of parts, components and cost associated with the invention. 


Stride Rite® lighted shoes may thrill little kids with their blinking lights, and they may also fascinate parents with such an ingenious patent stored in their soles and uppers!

The Abstract for US2007020122 titled Lighted shoes is included below with one of the patent drawings and a marketed Stride Rite® StarWars lighted model. 

A lighted shoe including, but not limited to, a component including, but not limited to, at least one light source (e.g., a light emitting diode or "LED"), and a power generating element (e.g., a magnetic dynamic motor or "dynamo") used to generate power to illuminate the at least one light source. The lighted shoe need not incorporate a battery to operate the at least one light source. 
[Abstract US2007020122]

Friday, November 27, 2015

Oh, patents! Skip*Hop® Moby bath spout cover

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann

Lots more Skip*Hop® patented bath time fun for you and your tot!

The Skip*Hop®, whale-looking, Moby bath spout cover is designed to protect tots from injuring themselves with a protruding bath spout when playing in the tub, on in case they slip.

According to one aspect of the invention, the Moby bath spout cover is designed for easy installation and removal from the bath spout. Easy removal is deemed necessary for proper drying and prevention of mildew and mold formation. The snug fit of the spout cover is obtained with the design of a strap that fits under the bath spout and adjusts to tighten or loosen the fit of both sides of the spout cover, around the spout. This aspect of the invention also affords use of the spout cover invention with various types and sizes of bath spouts.

According to another aspect of the invention, the bath spout cover also includes an opening on the top portion of the cover, which is designed to accommodate the shower diverter of a bath spout.

Finally, the Moby whale design is also an integral part of the invention as it is deemed important that the embodiment of the bath spout cover be aesthetically pleasing and appealing to little children! Indeed, in a perfect design match of form and function, the ends of the adjustable strap thus appear as small fins on each side the whale (See Item 26 on the patent drawing). 

US2015265104 titled Bath spout cover was filed on Sept. 24, 2015. The abstract of the invention is included below, as well as one of the patent drawings and an image of the marketed Moby whale product.
A bath spout cover is provided that includes a body structure having an upper portion, two opposing side portions, and a front portion; a receiving area defined between the upper portion, the two opposing side portions, and the front portion; a strap spanning the two opposing side portions, said strap being adjustable on at least one of the side portions of the body structure; and at least one aperture defined by one of the side portions of the body structure, said aperture for receiving an end of the strap. Further provided are methods for securing a bath spout cover to a bath spout. [Abstract US2015265104

Thursday, November 26, 2015

Oh, patents! Skip*Hop® Bathtub baby rinser

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann

Do you have a little tot? Would you like to gently shower your baby or remove shampoo with a soft flow of water? Skip*Hop® has an ingenious whale-looking jug that enables you to scoop water and then to pour it evenly and gently on your baby’s head. The jug is further equipped with a soft yellow rubber lip that fits snuggly on your infant's forehead, and thus protects face and eyes from water and shampoo!

The Skip*Hop® bathwater jug is called a baby rinser. It has a wide, semi-cylindrical opening with channels on the lower portion, extending from the closed end to the opening of the jug. The channels are designed to spread the flow of water widely and evenly across the opening as the water is dispensed, resulting in a gentle shower.  

Additionally, the Skip*Hop® baby rinser really looks like a blue whale, with a curled up tail that functions as a handle to scoop up bath water!

US2015305470, titled Bathtub baby rinser, was filed on October 29, 2015. The patent abstract is included below with one of the patent drawings, and an image of the marketed product.

Happy tubby time!

A container has a body with an opening for holding a fluid such as water. A plurality of substantially parallel fins extend from an opening toward an opposite end of the container defining parallel channels. When a fluid is dispersed from the opening of the container, the fluid is dispersed evenly across the opening in a coaxial direction to the fins [Abstract US2015305470].


Sunday, October 11, 2015

October 11, 2015 – International Day of the Girl Child

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann

Today is the International Day of the Girl Child, promulgated in 2011 by the United Nations. This year’s theme for celebrations is “The power of the adolescent girl: Visions for 2030”.

Indeed, 2015 is an important benchmark year as it marks both the deadline for measuring all that was accomplished since 2000 when the UN set the first series of Millenium Development Goals (MDGs), and the onset of a second set of Goals for Sustainable Development (GSDs) with a deadline in 2030.

Looking back on the past 15 years, progress is reported for Millenium Development Goal Number 3 designed to promote gender equality and to empower women. The girl child has more chances of attending elementary school, of being vaccinated and of receiving food. However, girls still lag behind in receiving an education at the secondary and university levels. They still do not receive enough information or means to manage their reproductive health, to avoid child marriages, or to protect themselves against sexual violence. (MDGs - Report, 2015)

Recognizing the pivotal role (beyond reproduction) that girls play in the economic development  and well-being of nations, the Goals for Sustainable Development set forth in 2015, include girls in goal Number 5 – Gender equality, with such targets as:
  •        End all forms of discrimination against women and girls everywhere
  •        Eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls in private and public spheres
  •        Eliminate all harmful practices (including genital mutilation and forced marriages)
  •         Recognize the value of unpaid and domestic work with the provision of public services and social protection
  •        Ensure women’s full participation and opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making
  •        Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health
  •        Undertake reforms to ensure women’s right to economic resources, access and ownership of land
  •         Enhance the use of enabling technologies, and
  •         Adopt and strengthen policies that promote gender equality (UN- Goal 5 )

 In 2030, the girl child of today will be an adolescent girl, and the UN recognizes this day her power to change the world, contingent upon the achievement of targets set forth this year for Sustainable Development Goal Number 5, in 2030.

As for the first set of Millenium Development Goals that the UN drafted 15 years ago, in 2000, nations will be able to monitor progress of the new Sustainable Development Goals set forth this year, during the course of  the next 15 years, with an ever better fate for young girls.

Happy Girl Child Day to all gals big and small!

UN International Day of the Girl Child 2015
UN - Goal 5 Achieve gender equality and empower all girls and women
UN - Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
UN- Millenium Development Goals (MDGs)
Millenium Development goals Report 2015


Thursday, October 1, 2015

World Vegetarian Day 2015

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann

Happy veggie day! xox

WorldVegetarianDay .org
Facebook - World Vegetarian Day
People for Ethical Treatment of animals 
Farm Sanctuary
Holland, A. and A. Johnson, Eds. (1998) Animal biotechnology and Ethics. London, UK: Chapman & Hall. 
Joy, M, (2010) Why we love dogs, eat pigs and wear cows: An introduction to carnism. San Francisco, CA: Conari Press. 
Safran Foer, J. (2009) Eating Animals. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company.
Singer, P. (1975) Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for our treatment of animals. New york, NY: Avon Books. 

Wednesday, September 30, 2015

International Translation Day

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann

The theme that the International Federation of Translators has selected for this year’s International Translation Day is The changing face of translation and interpreting – Le nouveau visage de la traduction et de l’interprétation.  

Thus, this day, on Sept. 30, 2015, celebrates all the advances in technology from quill to video conferencing and satellite communications, while honoring what remains constant: the translators themselves, whose purpose and calling appear consistent through the ages in the desire to bridge the gaps created by mutually unintelligible tongues.

Happy International Translation day 2015!

FIT-IFT Fédération Internationale des Traducteurs

Sunday, September 27, 2015

Thursday, September 24, 2015

Total Eclipse of a Super(Blood)Moon (on Sept. 27, 2015)

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann

Now… remember to watch the sky on September 27, 2015 when there will be a Total Eclipse of a Super(Blood)Moon. A Supermoon is a Full Moon or New Moon, at its closest position or perigee relative to earth, when the moon appears 12 to 14% bigger than a Micromoon. A BloodMoon is a moon positioned behind the earth, which has obstructed the sun’s blue rays.

From the perspective of the Earth, an eclipse happens when three celestial bodies are aligned almost in a straight line. The alignment is called a zyzygy (from the Greek word meaning "to be paired together").  In the case of a total eclipse of the moon, the sun, moon and earth are all aligned with the moon behind the earth, and the earth sandwhiched between the sun and moon. The earth thus obstructs light coming from the sun, casting its shadow on the moon. The eclipse occurs as the shadow is cast, partially or totally.

 In contrast, in a total eclipse of the sun, the sun, earth and moon are also aligned, but it is the moon that is sandwhiched between the sun and the earth, and it is the moon that casts its shadow on earth, obstructing sunlight during the eclipse. This is why it is almost as dark as night during a total eclipse of the sun, occurring during the day. The next total ecliipse of the sun viewable in the US is on August 21, 2017.

There have only been 5 Total eclipses of a Super(Blood)Moon since 1900. After Sept. 27, 2015, the next one will happen in 2033… So, mark your calendars and set your alarm clocks to 7:47 pm (in California) for viewing the maximum eclipse! 

No eye protection is required for viewing a total eclipse of a Super(Blood)moon. (Eye protection is only required for viewing a total eclipse of the sun). 

The video animation from NASA included below shows what you can expect, if the sky is clear… The Supermoon should appear red as the earth will completely filter out the sun’s blue rays, which is why this Supermoon is also called a “Blood Moon”. 

Enjoy the show!

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Wednesday, September 23, 2015

Fall Equinox – First day of Autumn 2015

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann

Today’s Google Doodle (in the US) reminds everyone that Sept. 23, 2015 is the first day of Autumn. Indeed the Fall semester at NYU is starting soon at the School of Professional Studies.

Here are a few key concepts of Astronomy… just in case you find patents in the sky…(and you will if you are covering climate change..)!

The first day of Autumn corresponds to the Fall Equinox, which is the day and time of the year when the sun is directly positioned on the Equator.  This precise position and time of the sun over the Equator (for example, in California, at 1:22 am on Sept. 23, 2015) divides the duration of day and night into equal length, which explains the term “equinox” derived from the Latin aequinoctium combining aequus meaning “equal”, and nox meaning “night”. This special position of the sun happens just two times each year, once in the Fall, called the Fall Equinox, and once in the Spring, called the Spring Equinox.

The Summer and Winter Solstices, in contrast, mark the shortest and longest days of the year, depending on the hemisphere of the earth. The Solstice is recorded on the day the sun’s position is the farthest or at it’s zenith relative to the elliptical orbit of the Earth. In the Northern hemisphere this position occurs in June, marking the Summer Solstice relative to the Northern hemisphere and the Winter solstice relative to the Southern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, the sun is at it’s zenith or the farthest from the Earth’s equator, in December, marking the Summer solstice relative to the Southern hemisphere and the Winter solstice relative to the Northern Hemisphere.  

 Because of the Earth’s tilt relative to the sun, when the sun is at it’s zenith in the Northern hemisphere, it is positioned directly over the Tropic of Cancer. In the Southern hemisphere, when the sun is at it’s zenith, it is positioned directly over the Tropic of Capricorn.

Below, a figure drawing of the solstices and equinoxes, extracted from the online version of the Encyclopedia Britannica.

Google Doodles
Encyclopedia Britanica (Article on Solstice and Zenith) - What is the September Equinox?

Sunday, September 20, 2015

Further feminist reading on footbinding

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann

For anyone interested in further exploring the issue of lotus shoes footbinding, the following is a short list of  more recent Chinese feminist studies of footbinding.

  • Fan, H. (1997) Footbinding Feminism and Freedom: The liberation of women's bodies in Modern China (Sport in the Global Society). New york, NY: Routeledge.

  • Ko, D. (2005) Cinderella's sisters: A revisionist history of footbinding. Berkely, CA: University of California Press. 

  • Wang, P. (2000) Aching for beauty: Footbinding in China. Minneapolis, MN: Univesity of Minnesota Press.

Saturday, September 19, 2015

Patented torture -- Lotus shoes

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann

Reader beware – This post contains difficult reading.

On the dark side of the history of shoes and fetishism, and on the radically opposite end of patented soles designed to provide added comfort or cushioning, for example…lies the Chinese Lotus shoe, a shoe designed to accommodate the Golden Lily, a euphemism for a woman’s bound foot whose growth was stunted, using the ancestral techniques and rituals of foot-binding.

Foot binding consisted in folding the foot’s four toes under the sole of the foot to fashion a cone shaped foot with the big toe at the tip. The binding rituals were initiated, on little girls by their mothers, between the ages of 3 to 5, until permanent results were obtained. Tightly bound with toes folded under the foot’s sole, foot growth was thus reduced in length to a tiny 3-inch foot, a process causing excruciating pain, and irreversible damage to structural and neurological integrity, resulting in an impossibility to both stand and walk normally, in other words, permanent crippling.

The practice is purported to date back to the beginning of the 10th century. It was outlawed in 1949, by Mao Zedong on the still questionable grounds that such crippled women were incapable of participating in the labor force….  The codes of shifting lineage, symbolic castration, subjugation, suffering and obedience, subsumed in the practice, are well analyzed in the feminist literature (e.g.; Kristeva, 1974).

As for Lotus shoe patents, below you will find CN204292721U titled Lotus feet foot mold, granted this year, on April 29, 2015, by the Republic of China...

The English version of the abstract is basically unintelligible and slightly obscene with its references to “paws” and “eating toe”. Thus, the Chinese Abstract is  included, at least for the greater understanding of those who are literate in Chinese.

The patent figure drawing No. 2 of the Lotus foot, depicting characteristically curled toes is included, as well as an image (above) of a pair of  fashionable ancient Lotus shoes, and the book cover drawing (above) of the Urizen Edition of Kristeva’s book About Chinese women (1974)

CN204292721U Abstract - in Chinese
CN204292721U - Figure 2

CN204292721U – Lotus feet foot mold (English Abstract)
 Filed 12-18-2014 , granted 04-29-2015…
The utility model relates to a three-inch golden lotus foot module, including foot handle, heel, paws and five toes, the five toes including big toe, food toe, toe, toe and nameless little toe, the big Hallux provided at the front paws, the food toe, toe, toe and little toe nameless successively disposed below the paws, paws in the heel set up the back-end, the foot above the handle provided in the heel, the said paw width decreased from the heel to large hallux at the big toe is slightly larger than the width of the front of the width of the paw. The three-inch golden lotus foot mold stable overall solid structure, modeling realistic, by eating toe, toe, toe and little toe nameless provided at the bottom of the paws, so as to reduce the width of the front paws, and to better match the existing The bound feet foot, to choose shoes convenience.

Kristeva, J. (1974) About Chinese women Translated from French by Anita Barrows. New York, NY: Urizen books

O’Keefe L. (1996) Shoes: A Celebration of pumps, platforms, sandals and slippers, boots, mules, sneakers and more. New York, NY: workman Publishing

Monday, September 14, 2015

Oh, patents! Heel terminology…

Copyright © Françoise Herrmann

You may as well get your heels correctly labeled… There are even more sorts of heels than there are snow types in Eskimo languages!

This post is a tribute to the fashion industry and to shoemaker superstars, like André Perugia and Israel Miller, for example, who added comfort to esthetics, saving many women from the abuses of fetishism.

French definitions and English translations are included in the table below. The numbers refer the above images.

1. talon entonnoir
funnel heel
2. talon aiguille 
Talon haut, de plus de 7 cm, et très effilé vers le bas. Il peut atteindre des hauteurs de 15 cm 
spike (high) heels
3. talon stiletto 
ou talon crayon, talon aiguille très haut qui reste fin jusqu'à la semelle 
stiletto or pencil heel (the highest of high heels)
4. talon banane
banana heel
5. talon carré
chunky heel
6. talon compensé 
Talon qui se prolonge sous la cambrure pour se raccorder à la semelle. Parfois appelé talon plein ou talon wedge 
wedge heel
7. talon semi-compensé 
talon compensé dont la surface inférieure sous la cambrure est légèrement creusée
half-wedge heel
8. talon cubain 
ou talon quiille talon large, de hauteur moyenne, dont les profils sont rectilignes et dont l’arrière est en pente légère vers l’avant 
Cuban heel
9. talon bottier 
ou talon rainuré, talon haut et large fait de lamelles de cuir superposées ou donnant cet aspect 
stacked heel
10. talon triangle
cone heel
11. talon français
Talon plat à gorge incurvée et dont l’arrière est en pente vers l’avant 
French heel
12. talon en talus 
Talon évasé vers le bas et dont la surface au sol est plus grande que la surface d’emboîtage (inverse du talon abattu) 
flare heel, ballroom dance heel
13. talon virgule
comma heel
14. talon Louis XV 
Talon haut de profil concave et au surplomb très accentué 
Louis heel
15. talon bobine 
Talon haut creusé sur son pourtour et évasé vers le bas 
spool heel
16. kitten heel 
Petits talons aiguille d'une hauteur comprise entre 3,5 et 5 centimètres 
kitten heel
17. plateforme
18. talon plat
ou talon bas, talon de faible hauteur dont les faces supérieures et inférieures sont parallèles 
low heel
19. talon chiquet 
Talon très plat constitué d’une unique lamelle de cuir. Ce type de talon se trouve souvent sur des ballerines par exemple 
flat heel
20. talon collant 
Talon dont le pourtour est au même niveau que celui de la chaussure 
zero-drop heel

Dupré, C. (1982) Vocabulaire de la chaussure – Françis –Anglais – Cahier de l’Office de la Langue Française. Québec, Canada: Publication Officielle. [French definitions]
Twenty –Five types of heels: the ultimate guide [Images]
Footware glossary
Wikipedia – Talon (chaussure)
Dictionnaire des talons
Les talons de base – Le Blog de JEF Chaussures
Glossaire de la chaussure
Glossaire-lexique de la cordonnerie et des métiers du cuir
Lexique de la chaussure – Blog Jacques & Déméter
Lexique du kickboxing
Illustrated glossary of shoe styles
Shoe glossary – Shoe smitten